• istream (input stream) type, which provides input operations
• ostream (output stream) type, which provides output operations
• cin, an istream object that reads the standard input
• cout, an ostream object that writes to the standard output
• cerr, an ostream object, typically used for program error messages, that writes to the standard error
• The >> operator, which is used to read input from an istream object
• The << operator, which is used to write output to an ostream object
• The getline function (§ 3.2.2, p. 87), which reads a line of input from a given istream into a given string
C++ Primer P310
Open for input operations.
Open for output operations.
Open in binary mode.
Set the initial position at the end of the file. If this flag is not set, the initial position is the beginning of the file.
All output operations are performed at the end of the file, appending the content to the current content of the file.
If the file is opened for output operations and it already existed, its previous content is deleted and replaced by the new one.