A way to represent a periodic function as the sum of simple sine and cosine waves.
These sine and cosine functions, also known as harmonics, have frequencies that are integer multiples of a fundamental frequency.


Let’s denote the function we want to represent as and the Fourier series as . If the function is periodic and integrable over the interval , then the Fourier series representation of is given by:


  • ,
  • ,
  • .