In linguistics, a calque (/kælk/) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal word-for-word or root-for-root translation.


  • de facto: De facto is Latin for “of fact,” meaning “in reality,” and it’s usually contrasted with “de jure,” which means “of law,” or “officially.”

Rhetoric Devices

Alliteration 头韵

The repetition of the same sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.
Example: “She sells seashells by the seashore.”

Anaphora 重复

The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses.
Example: “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up…I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation…”

Antithesis 对偶

A contrast or opposition between two things.
Example: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.”

Hyperbole 夸张

An exaggerated statement or claim not meant to be taken literally.
Example: “I’m so hungry I could eat a horse.”

Irony 反讽

The use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning. Example: Saying “Oh, great” when something bad happens.

Metaphor 隐喻

A metaphor is a rhetorical figure of speech that compares two things by stating one is the other.
Example: “Life is a journey.”

Simile 明喻

A simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison, showing similarities between two different things using “like” or “as”.
Example: “He is as brave as a lion.”

Personification 拟人

Personification is a metaphorical figure of speech that attributes human qualities and characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, or abstract concepts.
Example: “The wind whispered through the trees.”

Oxymoron 矛盾修辞

Oxymoron is a figure of speech in which two contradictory terms appear in conjunction.
Example: “Bitter sweet.”