While running, transactions use data resources without acquiring locks on those resources. Before committing, each transaction verifies that no other transaction has modified the data it has read. If the check reveals conflicting modifications, the committing transaction rolls back and can be restarted


high concurrency, fast performance, and no locking of records, which requires additional server resources

  • 乐观锁 (pessimistic locks):乐观锁在操作数据时非常乐观,认为别人不会同时修改数据。因此乐观锁不会上锁,只是在执行更新的时候判断一下在此期间别人是否修改了数据:如果别人修改了数据则在新的数据基础上重试操作,否则执行操作。
  • 悲观锁 (optimistic locks):悲观锁在操作数据时比较悲观,认为别人会同时修改数据。因此操作数据时直接把数据锁住,直到操作完成后才会释放锁;上锁期间其他人不能修改数据。