Modular arithmetic - Wikipedia


Congruence modulo (article) | Cryptography | Khan Academy

  1. is the symbol for congruence, which means the values A and B are in the same equivalence class.
  2. (mod C) tells us what operation we applied to A and B.
  3. when we have both of these, we call congruence modulo C.

We say that r is congruent to s modulo n, or r is congruent to s mod n, if r − s is evenly divisible by n;

From Set

Set Theory

Modular Power

Complexity: for
Use Divide and Conquer Algorithm, , like fast multiply algorithm.