Each layer has its own error detection: the end-to-end principle


CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Code)

  • Ethernet append a CRC
  • Good for detection, catch any 2 bits error, odd number of bit error or any burst c bits long.

MAC (Message Authentication Code)

  • TLS append MAC
  • Robust to malicious modifications, but not errors


  • Wireless network error handling?

Retransmission Strategy

Based on the size of the receiving buffer size.

Go Back N

If one failed, retransmit the entire window.

Selective Repeat

Retransmit only the packet that is lost.